- abstract job¶
A job which cannot be run directly, and is only intended to serve as a parent on top of which other jobs are constructed.
A file or set of files created by a build and archived for reuse. The term is usually in reference to primary build outputs such as a release package or rendered documentation, but can also mean files produced as a byproduct such as logs.
- base job¶
A job with no parent. A base job may only be defined in a config-project. Multiple base jobs may be defined, but each tenant has a single default job which will be used as the parent of any job which does not specify one explicitly.
Any run of a job. Every build is assigned a globally unique identifier which is used when coordinating between Zuul’s component services, and for purposes such as addressing log streams and results in the status API and Web dashboard. The context for a build comes not only from its job definition, but also from the pipeline into which it is scheduled.
A collection of builds which share a common context. All builds in a buildset have the same triggering event and change identifier.
A specific state of a Git repository. Changes can represent a change revision/pull request from a code review system, a remote branch tip, a tag, or any other sort of Git ref. A change can also come with additional dependency context, either implicit from its commit history or explicit through the use of cross-project dependency declarations (for example in a commit message or pull request summary, the exact mechanism varies by source connection driver).
By convention, the name of a pipeline which performs pre-merge tests. Such a pipeline might be triggered by creating a new change or pull request. It may run with changes which have not yet seen any human review, so care must be taken in selecting the kinds of jobs to run, and what resources will be available to them in order to avoid misuse of the system or credential compromise. It usually has an independent pipeline manager since the final sequence of changes to merge is not generally known at the time of upload.
- child job¶
A job which inherits values such as playbooks and variables from a parent job. All jobs are implicitly child jobs, since they inherit from at least a base job whether they declare it as a parent or not.
One of two types of projects which may be specified by the administrator in the tenant config file. A config-project is primarily tasked with holding configuration information and job content for Zuul. Jobs which are defined in a config-project are run with elevated privileges, and all Zuul configuration items are available for use. It is expected that changes to config-projects will undergo careful scrutiny before being merged.
A coupling of a triggering and reporting driver with credentials and location information for a specific source of events, whether that’s a code review platform, a generic Git hosting site or an emitting protocol such as SMTP or SQL.
- cross-project dependency¶
An explicit declaration that a change depends on another change, which need not be in the same Git repository or even accessible via the same connection. Zuul is expected to incorporate any cross-project dependencies into the context for the change declaring that dependency relationship.
By convention, the name of a continuous-deployment pipeline. Such a pipeline typically interacts with production systems rather than ephemeral test nodes. By triggering on merge events the results of deployment can be reported back to the originating change. The serial pipeline manager, is recommended if multiple repositories are involved and only some jobs (based on file matchers) will be run for each change. If a single repo is involved and all deployment jobs run on every change merged, then supercedent may be a better fit.
The component of Zuul responsible for executing a sandboxed Ansible process in order to produce a build. Some builds may run entirely in the executor’s provided workspace if the job is suitably constructed, or it may require the executor to connect to remote nodes for more complex and risky operations.
- final job¶
A job which no other jobs are allowed to use as a parent, for example in order to prevent the list of tasks they run from being altered by potential child jobs.
By convention, the name of a pipeline which performs project gating. Such a pipeline might be triggered by a core team member approving a change or pull request. It should have a dependent pipeline manager so that it can combine and sequence changes as they are approved.
The set of hosts and variable assignments Zuul provides to Ansible, forming the context for a build.
A collection of Ansible playbooks, variables, filtering conditions and other metadata defining a set of actions which should be taken when invoked under the intended circumstances. Jobs are anonymous sets of sequenced actions, which when executed in the context of a pipeline, result in a build.
- job dependency¶
A declared reliance in one job on the completion of builds for one or more other jobs or provided artifacts those builds may produce. Jobs may also be conditionally dependent on specific build results for their dependencies.
- job variant¶
A lightweight modification of another defined job altering variables and filtering criteria.
The component of Zuul responsible for constructing Git refs provided to builds based on supplied change contexts from triggering events. An executor may also be configured to run a local merger process for increased efficiency.
A remote system resource on which Ansible playbooks may be executed, for strong isolation from the executor’s environment. In Ansible inventory terms, this is a remote host.
An assembly of one or more nodes which, when applied in a job, are added as host entries to the Ansible inventory for its builds. Nodes in a nodeset can be given convenient names for ease of reference in job playbooks.
- parent job¶
A job from which a child job inherits values such as playbooks and variables. Depending on the type of playbooks and variables, these may either be merged with or overridden by the child job. Any job which doesn’t specify a parent inherits from the tenant’s base job.
A set of triggering, prioritizing, scheduling, and reporting rules which provide the context for a build.
- pipeline manager¶
The algorithm through which a pipeline manages queuing of trigger events. Specifically, this determines whether changes are queued independently, sequenced together in the order they’re approved, or superceded entirely by subsequent events.
By convention, the name of a pipeline which runs after a branch is updated. By triggering on a branch update (rather than a merge) event, jobs in this pipeline may run with the final git state after the merge (including any merge commits generated by the upstream code review system). This is important when building some artifacts in order that the exact commit ids are present in the git repo. The downside to this approach is that jobs in this pipeline run without any connection to the underlying changes which created the commits. If only the latest updates to a branch matter, then the supercedent pipeline manager is recommended; otherwise independent may be a better choice. See also tag and release.
A unique Git source repository available through a connection within a tenant. Projects are identified by their connection or hostname, combined with their repository, so as to avoid ambiguity when two repositories of the same name are available through different connections.
- project gating¶
Automatically preventing a proposed change from merging to a canonical source code repository for a project until it is able to pass declared tests for that repository. In a project gating workflow, cues may be taken from its users, but it is ultimately the gating system which controls merging of changes and not the users themselves.
- project pipeline¶
The application of jobs to a pipeline. Project pipeline entries often include filtering and matching rules specifying the conditions under which a job should result in a build, and any interdependencies those jobs may have on the build results and named artifacts provided by other jobs.
- project queue¶
The set of changes sequenced for testing, either explicitly through dependency relationships, or implicitly from the chronological ordering of triggering events which enqueued them. Project queues can be named and shared by multiple projects, ensuring sequential merging of changes across those projects.
- project template¶
A named mapping of jobs into pipelines, for application to one or more projects. This construct provides a convenient means of reusing the same sets of jobs in the same pipelines across multiple projects.
By convention, the name of a pipeline which uploads previously built artifacts. These artifacts should be constructed in a gate pipeline and uploaded to a temporary location. When all of the jobs in the gate pipeline succeed, the change will be merged and may then be enqueued into a promote pipeline. Jobs running in this pipeline do so with the understanding that since the change merged as it was tested in the gate, any artifacts created at that time are now safe to promote to production. It is a good choice to use a supercedent pipeline manager so that if many changes merge in rapid sequence, Zuul may skip promoting all but the latest artifact to production.
- provided artifact¶
A named artifact which builds of a job are expected to produce, for purposes of dependency declarations in other jobs. Multiple jobs may provide equivalent artifacts with the same name, allowing these relationships to be defined independent of the specific jobs which provide them.
A reporter is a pipeline attribute which describes the action performed when an item is dequeued after its jobs complete. Reporters are implemented by Drivers so their actions may be quite varied. For example, a reporter might leave feedback in a remote system on a proposed change, send email, or store information in a database.
- required artifact¶
An artifact provided by one or more jobs, on which execution of the job requiring it depends.
- required project¶
A project whose source code is required by the job. Jobs implicitly require the project associated with the event which triggered their build, but additional projects can be specified explicitly as well. Zuul supplies merge commits representing the speculative future states of all required projects for a build.
The component of Zuul which coordinates source and reporting connections as well as requests for nodes, mergers and executors for builds triggered by pipeline definitions in the tenant configuration.
- speculative execution¶
A term borrowed from microprocessor design, the idea that sequenced operations can be performed in parallel by predicting their possible outcomes and then discarding any logical branches which turn out not to be true. Zuul uses optimistic prediction to assume all builds for a change will succeed, and then proceeds to run parallel builds for other changes which would follow it in sequence. If a change enters a failing state (at least one of its voting builds indicates a failure result), then Zuul resets testing for all subsequent queue items to no longer include it in their respective contexts.
A set of projects on which Zuul should operate. Configuration is not shared between tenants, but the same projects from the same connections may appear in more than one tenant and the same events may even enqueue the same changes in pipelines for more than one tenant. Zuul’s HTTP API methods and Web dashboard are scoped per tenant, in order to support distinct tenant-specific authentication and authorization.
A (typically external) event which Zuul may rely on as a cue to enqueue a change into a pipeline.
- trusted execution context¶
Playbooks defined in a config-project run in the trusted execution context. The trusted execution context has access to all Ansible features, including the ability to load custom Ansible modules.
- untrusted execution context¶
Playbooks defined in an untrusted-project run in the untrusted execution context. Playbooks run in the untrusted execution context are not permitted to load additional Ansible modules or access files outside of the restricted environment prepared for them by the executor. In addition to the bubblewrap environment applied to both execution contexts, in the untrusted context some standard Ansible modules are replaced with versions which prohibit some actions, including attempts to access files outside of the restricted execution context. These redundant protections are made as part of a defense-in-depth strategy.
One of two types of projects which may be specified by the administrator in the tenant config file. An untrusted-project is one whose primary focus is not to operate Zuul, but rather it is one of the projects being tested or deployed. The Zuul configuration language available to these projects is somewhat restricted, and jobs defined in these projects run in a restricted execution environment since they may be operating on changes which have not yet undergone review.